Neuroinvasion of SARS-CoV-2 in human and mouse brain Journal of Experimental Medicine, 2021

A new study by Song et al. elegantly demonstrates that SARS-CoV-2 can infect the human brain. Their findings establish a basis for the development of potential interventions to ameliorate or prevent persistent CNS-related sequelae reported in a significant number of patients who have recovered from acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. Two of GeneTex’s SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (GTX635679 and GTX632604



Predictive value of cytokine/chemokine responses for the disease sever... Journal of Medical Virology, 2020

Abstract The disease course of children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) seems milder as compared with adults, however, actual reason of the pathogenesis still remains unclear. There is a growing interest on possible relationship between pathogenicity or disease severity and biomarkers including cytokines or chemokines. We wondered whether these biomarkers could be used for the prediction of the prognosis of COVID‐19 and improving our understanding on the variations between pediatric and adult cases with COVID‐19. The acute phase s...



RTP4 Is a Potent IFN-Inducible Anti-flavivirus Effector Engaged in a H... Cell Host & Microbe, 2020

Abstract Among mammals, bats are particularly rich in zoonotic viruses, including flaviviruses. Certain bat species can be productively yet asymptomatically infected with viruses that cause overt disease in other species. However, little is known about the antiviral effector repertoire in bats relative to other mammals. Here, we report the black flying fox receptor transporter protein 4 (RTP4) as a potent interferon (IFN)-inducible inhibitor of human pathogens in the Flaviviridae family, including Zika, West Nile, and hepatitis C...



Wnt Signaling in Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, 2017

Abstract The signaling pathways that sustain the disease process of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) remain poorly understood. We sought to determine the expression levels of Wnt signaling genes in CRSwNP and to study the role of the Wnt pathway in inflammation and epithelial remodeling in the nasal mucosa. Microarrays and real time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction comparing gene expression in matched NPs and inferior turbinates revealed that WNT2B, WNT3A, WNT4, WNT7A, WNT7B, and FZD2 were up-regulated and that FZD1,...



Illuminating the cross-talk between tumor metabolism and immunity in I... Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 2021

The exciting review of Leca et al. (2021) summarizes the role of the Krebs cycle key enzyme IDH in the cross-talk between tumor metabolism and immunity in IDH-mutated cancers and shades light on its relevance in immunotherapeutic approaches of IDH-mutant cancers. Background: IDH is of central importance for the energy metabolism of the cell. IDH1 and 2 are mutated in numerous cancers and lead to the accumulation of the "oncometabolite" 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), which directly influences tumor metabolism and "...



Establishing models of corticosteroid patterns during the life history... General and Comparative Endocrinology, 2021

Like humans, marine mammals can get stressed out, and accurate stress measurement in wildlife is fundamental to understanding how animals cope with and respond to perturbations in their environment. For killer whales (Orcnius orca), environmental contamination and other anthropogenic stressors, such as vessel disturbance and fisheries, are major stressors. To better understand the stress level of whales, researchers use



Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell therapy in patients... Signal Transduct Target Ther., 2020

Abstract No effective drug treatments are available for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Host-directed therapies targeting the underlying aberrant immune responses leading to pulmonary tissue damage, death, or long-term functional disability in survivors require clinical evaluation. We performed a parallel assigned controlled, non-randomized, phase 1 clinical trial to evaluate the safety of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) infusions in the treatment of patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 pulmonary di...



Cytomegalovirus promotes murine glioblastoma growth via pericyte recru... The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 2019

Abstract Cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been implicated in glioblastoma (GBM); however, a mechanistic connection in vivo has not been established. The purpose of this study is to characterize the effects of murine CMV (MCMV) on GBM growth in murine models. Syngeneic GBM models were established in mice perinatally infected with MCMV. We found that tumor growth was markedly enhanced in MCMV+ mice, with a significant reduction in overall survival compared with that of controls (P < 0.001). We observed increased angiogenesis and tumor blood flow...



Patrolling Alveolar Macrophages Conceal Bacteria from the Immune Syste... Cell, 2020

Abstract During respiration, humans breathe in more than 10,000 liters of non-sterile air daily, allowing some pathogens access to alveoli. Interestingly, alveoli outnumber alveolar macrophages (AMs), which favors alveoli devoid of AMs. If AMs, like most tissue macrophages, are sessile, then this numerical advantage would be exploited by pathogens unless neutrophils from the blood stream intervened. However, this would translate to omnipresent persistent inflammation. Developing in vivo real-time intravital imaging of alveoli...



Neuropathology of patients with COVID-19 in Germany: a post-mortem cas... The Lancet, 2020

Prominent clinical symptoms of COVID-19 include CNS manifestations. However, it is unclear whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, gains access to the CNS and whether it causes neuropathological changes. Here, Matschke et al. investigated the brain tissue of patients who died from COVID-19 for glial responses, inflammatory changes, and the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the CNS. The group detected fresh territorial ischaemic lesions in six (14%) patients. 37 (86%) patients had astrogliosis in a...